Cells are composed of water, inorganic ions and organic molecules. Water is the most abundant molecule in cells, accounting for 70% or more of the total cell mass. Consequently, the interactions between water and the other constituents of cells are of central importance in biological chemistry. The four major organic molecules are proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids DNA and lipids. These macromolecules are called natural polymers and are composed of many repeating subunits called monomers.
Monomers are atoms or smaller molecules that bond together to form this complex structures. The four main monomers include sugars, amino acids, fatty acids and nucleotides. A hydrolysis reaction reverses the condensation of monomers, breaking the covalent bonds that hold them together. The process breaks down all organic materials into their most basic building blocks, so small that no trace of protein or nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) remain.
Hydrolysis is catalysed with hydro soluble bases such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sodium hydroxide (NAOH). These alkali metal hydroxides react donating hydroxyl ions OH- and together with temperature dramatically accelerates the process. The organics are dissolved into the water, which becomes a sterile hydrolysate, a 95% water and 5%-7% solution of amino acids, small peptides, sugars, soaps, and electrolytes; It’s a valuable and versatile nutrient source that can be used as fertilizer, either liquid or dried and solid, as an additive to composting systems, or as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion biogas generation plants that produce methane, steam, heat, and electric power.
This method of body disposition is a proven sterilization process that results in pathogen and disease free remains. Ashes are 100% safe to handle, chemotherapy drugs, viruses and diseases are rendered benign.
Alkaline hydrolysis leads to the random breaking of nearly 40% of all peptide bonds in proteins, the major solid constituent of animal cells and tissues. The vast majority of the products of the hydrolysis are single amino acids or small peptides in the 2-5 um residue range. Under the right conditions of temperature.
Simple fats consist of three fatty acid chains bound through ester bonds to a molecule of glycerol. During alkaline hydrolysis, all of these ester bonds, as well as the sterol esters and phospholipids of cell secretions and cell membranes, hydrolyze with the consumption of the alkali, producing the sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids, namely soaps. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids (pigments)undergo molecular rearrangements and are thus broken down.
As a group of polymers, carbohydrates are the constituents of cells and tissues most slowly affected by alkaline hydrolysis. Both glycogen, the most common large polymer of glucose in animals, and starch, the most common large polymer of glucose in plants, are immediately solubilized. . All monosaccharides (simple sugars), such as glucose, galactose, and mannose, are rapidly consumed by the hot aqueous alkaline solution.
Nucleic acids are large, unbranched, linear polymers held together by phosphodiester bonds, which are similar to the simpler ester bonds of fats but include a phosphate group as part of the bond structure. These ester bonds are also hydrolyzed with consumption of the alkali, rapidly destroying ribonucleic acid (RNA) and more slowly destroying deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Pure Souls Pet Aquacremation offers pet owners a gentle and eco-friendly water-based pet cremation service. Our friendly and compassionate team are here to help you through this difficult time.
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